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what manuscripts did erasmus use

“Erasmus omitted the passage from the first printed Greek Testament of 1516, but undertook to introduce the words if a Greek manuscript containing them could be produced. Desiderius Erasmus, a Dutch Roman Catholic priest of the early 16th century, holds the honor of being the first after the invention of the printing press to publish a printed Greek New Testament. He experienced what church historian Timothy George called a “turning point” in 1504 when he discovered a century-old manuscript by Lorenzo Valla with notes about Paul’s Epistles based on various Greek manuscripts. Beza continued to refine the Greek New Testament text based on the manuscript data Stephanus provided in his notes, as well as some additional texts that Beza had available to him, the most notable of which is a sixth-century, Codex Claromontanus, though Beza seems to have scarcely used it. Thus, for his first edition, Erasmus had three copies of the Gospels to compare, three of Acts, four of Paul's letters, two of the other New Testament letters, and only one for the Book of Revelation. Erasmus, a 15th-century Dutch theologian, working at great speed in order to beat to press another Greek New Testament being prepared in Spain, gathered together what hand-copied Greek manuscripts he could locate. The Renaissance had brought with it a greater interest in original  documents. There are many articles on the internet purporting to prove conclusively that Erasmus did in fact back translate from the Latin Vulgate the last few verses of Revelation. . Since he did not originally intend to publish a Greek text, he was forced to rely upon those available at Basel. MATT SLICK LIVE RADIOCall in with your questions at 877-207-22763-4pm PST; 4-5pm MST; 6-7pm ESTWatch on FacebookPast Shows Radio PodcastRadio Show SurveySubscribe to CARM Radio, CARM wishlistWant to help CARM in a different way? One is that the TR was based on a relatively small collection of mostly late Greek manuscripts which were often not selected systematically but rather because they were all the manuscripts available to the men doing the collecting. This article seeks to address a more specific aspect of the wager theory; that Codex Montfortianus was the manuscript produced specifically so Erasmus would include the Comma in his 3rd Edition of his Greek New Testament. The Greek Textus Receptus underlying the KJV was first edited by Desiderius Erasmus and published in 1516. It is also noteworthy that none of the manuscripts used by Erasmus' were older than the 10th century, and even the one 10th-century manuscript he had he scarcely used as it differed most from the others. A. realism, as in his painting of the Mona Lisa B. panel painting, as in his painting of The Last Supper C. two-dimensional views, as in his sketches of inventions D. angular style, as in his sketches of architectural buildings. 13 Preserved Smith, Erasmus: A Study of His Life, Ideals and Place in History (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1923), 161–62. Some of the manuscripts (as in common in ancient texts) were damaged in places. The scholars who produced it boasted generally of the quality of their manuscripts but did not detail which copies they used, so modern scholars can only speculate which manuscripts were behind the Complutensian text. The Complutensian Polyglot Volume 4, page 413. If you have any issues, please call the office at 385-246-1048 or email us at info@carm.org. What new Renaissance artistic technique, partly revived from classical times, did Leonardo da Vinci use? Still, his approach to gathering and noting this data was extremely influential both in later translations and in later text-critical work on the Greek text. More interestingly, we have his notes in the printer’s copy in minuscule 2 where he added v. 14 in the margin, placing it before v. 13 (still following the RP versification). While in England Erasmus began the systematic examination of manuscripts of the New Testament to prepare for a new edition and Latin translation. This is how Tyndale, Coverdale, and the Geneva Bible read as well, following the TR. Because Erasmus was not planning on publishing the Greek alongside his Latin edition, he only had access to 7 Greek manuscripts which were available in Basel. In the case of the KJV translators, they relied on the word of three key men: Desiderius Erasmus, Robert Estienne (better known by his Latin name, Stephanus), and Theodore Beza. Erasmus famously only had 7 manuscripts on hand when he compiled the first edition of his "Novum Instrumentum omne". For the most part, Beza printed a text not very different from that of Stephanus and Erasmus before him. It is not only repeated in popular circles, but scholarly ones as well. Still, this should not be exaggerated. I think it’s the latter. Subsequent manuscript discoveries, however, have actually vindicated the KJV translators in this place, and every modern version agrees with the KJV here. There is zero evidence that Erasmus ever made this wager and Erasmian scholar Dr. H.J. This was another Greek New Testament that was being produced at the time. Did Erasmus translate the Bible? Erasmus used just a handful of late Greek manuscripts when composing his text and that since the KJV was published in 1611 many new manuscripts that are older and better have been discovered. It is commonly known that Erasmus did not include a large section of 1 John 5:7 in the 1st and 2nd Editions of his Greek New Testament. He protested saying that “they had stolen the labours of his life.” The manuscripts were returned in a few days (Froude, The Life and Letters, p. 169). There were also places (though very few) that the KJV translators willfully sided with the Latin against Erasmus, Beza, Stephanus, and even the Complutensian. One of the more notorious myths about Erasmus is that he backtranslated the last 6 verses of the book of Revelation. In some cases, such as John 5:3b-4, a scribe mistook an explanatory marginal comment for a correction­ and copied it into the text. This is the so called Comma Johanneum,  “For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.” (KJV) Despite being accepted as Scripture by Christians for millenia, Erasmus did not include it because he could not find it among any of the Greek manuscripts he had examined. The original KJV of 1611 likewise marked the text. Erasmus had access to most of the same set of manuscripts as did modern translators with the obvious exception of Codex Sinaiticus, which was not rescued from the trash can at St. Catherine's monastery until the mid-19th century. As a Catholic priest, Erasmus was an important figure in classical scholarship who wrote in a pure Latin style. [and these three agree in one. (For a long time, this manuscript was simply referred to as manuscript 1r.) Like Erasmus’ work, it was also a collation of many manuscripts available during that time. Still, for all that, Erasmus' had made a Greek New Testament available to scholars throughout Western Europe for the first time in ages. The Complutensian Polyglot was a printed text from the early 16th century that was produced entirely independently of Erasmus' efforts. Site Supporter . It was printed in 1516 with twocolumns - a Greek text on the left and Erasmus' new Latin translation (made fromthe Greek) on the right. At any rate, very few changes were made in the fourth and fifth editions. Erasmus considered himself to be a humanist scholar, in the sense of wanting to recover the classics. He used manuscripts: 1, 1 rK, 2 e, 2 ap, 4 ap, 7, 817. All of these are medieval manuscripts ranging in date from the 12th to the 15th century (most closer to the 12th or 13th). The issue actually has nothing to do with the Comma and instead involves 1 John 5:8. Because Westcott and Hort followed Vaticanus as their primary manuscript, the majority of readings were also available to Erasmus and most reformers. When we look at what the KJV translators accomplished with the limited texts they had available to them, it should invoke in us a great respect and admiration for their work. He found five or six, the majority of which were dated in the twelfth century. For his second edition (1519), Erasmus' gained access to Minuscule 33, a 9th Century copy of the New Testament that was nearly complete, though it lacked the entire book of Revelation and had some damage in the gospels. In other cases, such as Matt 18:11, an additional verse from the parallel passage in another gospel was added in. This Codex has been dated to the early 1500s, which is why many believe it was made specifically for Erasmus to justify his inclusion of the Comma. Thus, Beza brought in several readings from outside the Greek manuscript tradition and introduced them into the TR. He was actually producing a new Latin translation that he hoped would replace the Latin Vulgate. In order to justify his new translation, he put on the opposite page the Greek text he was translating from. Robert Estienne, or Stephanus, was a scholar in Paris and a convert to the Protestant faith from Roman Catholicism. What manuscripts did the KJV translators use? Did he follow one of these manuscripts or did he give this order independently of them? In the second edition (1519) Erasmus used also Minuscule 3. Beza's primary work was not that of supplying new manuscript data but rather of critically examining the data that his predecessors had provided. Typographical errors, attributed to the rush to complete the work, abounded in the published text. Even though the wager theory has been refuted, it continues to persist. Some believe that it was copied from a manuscript that did not include the Comma, which they claim was added from the Latin. While the majority of Greek manuscripts lack the second half of the verse, all of the earliest manuscripts contain the longer form. Five editions of Novum Instrumentum omne were published, although its title was changed to Novum Testamentum omne with the second edition, and the name continued. In fact, Erasmus’ own manuscript collection was so large and valuable, it was covetously seized by customs when he left England to go to the Continent to finalize the Greek New Testament in 1514. click, Contact | Facebook | Twitter | Store | Radio | Copying and Linking | Statement of Faith | The Warning TractCARM, PO BOX 1353, Nampa ID 83653 | 385-246-1048 | info@carm.orgHosting by EverythingsA.com  Powered by the Connectivity.Engineer Network, Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry, CARM, PO BOX 1353, Nampa ID 83653 | 385-246-1048. It was even a “manifesto,” in the words of Lucien Febvre, that sent shockwaves through a Christian Europe deeply attached to Latin and the Vulgate. Like most translators, the men who produced the KJV did not travel about examining all the manuscripts directly. This explains why the Textus Receptus is very similar to the Majority Text. How many manuscripts did Erasmus have to work with? The editions of Stephens, Beza and the Elzevirs all present substantially the same text, and the variations are not of gr… It is also noteworthy that none of the manuscripts used by Erasmus' were older than the 10th century, and even the one 10th-century manuscript he had he scarcely used as it differed most from the others. Indeed, we now know that the majority of all of the thousands of Greek manuscripts contain only this short form of the verse, The KJV, however, reads: "Whosoever denieth the Son, the same hath not the Father: he that acknowledgeth the Son hath the Father also," (1 John 2:23, KJV). Erasmus thus became a pioneer in the field of publishing Biblical texts, as the publication of a Greek version of the New Testament was an extraordinary and almost provocative endeavour in 1516. The second edition used the more familiar term Testamentum instead of Instrumentum, and eventually became a major source for Luther's German translation. The reason is that none of the Gospel manuscripts he used have both verses in his order. There are many variants between the Erasmus text and the copies he consulted which he did not include in his notes. A few things stand out from this information. Because Erasmus was not planning on publishing the Greek alongside his Latin edition, he only had access to 7 Greek manuscripts which were available in Basel. While Stephanus was quite conservative in making changes to the main text of Erasmus' work, he noted a variety of variant readings in the margins for the reader to consider. Hence, when Erasmus got to the end of Revelation, he translated the last verses from the Latin Vulgate into Greek. Of these, only Minuscule 42 and the Complutensian Polyglot contained the book of Revelation, and Minuscule 42 had some gaps in Revelation due to damage in the manuscript (though not in the same places as Erasmus' manuscripts had gaps). Among these Greek manuscripts was only 1 poor copy of Revelation, which did not even include Revelation 22:16-21. Within these editions, Stephanus expanded the available data for scholars and translators to use. The Hispanic Codex is believed to be the Complutensian Polyglot. Stephanus treated the Complutensian text as a manuscript, listing its variant readings alongside those of other texts he consulted. If KJV uses (as you report and as it does) 'book of life' in xxii.19, why should NASB, using NA23 translate 'tree of life' if 'All Greek manuscripts of Revelation, however – at least, all Greek manuscripts prior to Erasmus’ printed text – support the reading “book of life."' Minuscule 1 rK, Erasmus's only text source for the Book of Revelation, is a manuscript of the Andreas commentary and not a continuous text manuscript. On which New Testament manuscripts did the KJV translators rely. It was a reading they found only in the Latin. Text adding verse numbers to his Greek text actually producing a New edition and following of Erasmus efforts... His painting of the book of Revelation, which inevitably affected which readings they preferred in certain places certain from. Discovered he would include it was one key passage of Scripture that Erasmus used several Greek manuscript sources he... 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